Category Archives: Biologi Molekuler

Top 10 Innovations 2015

1. GemCode Platform | 10X Genomics

These days it seems like more labs than not are equipped to do their own DNA sequencing, most commonly using an Illumina desktop system. While these sequencers are user-friendly and quick to produce data, they generate reads of only a few hundred base pairs, meaning much long-range genomic information—such as structural variants, polymorphisms, and haplotypes—is lost.

10X Genomics aims to solve that problem with its GemCode Platform, released this summer. An all-in-one molecular barcoding and analysis tool, GemCode partitions very large DNA molecules—100 kilobases, on average—into gel beads, and then tags these fragments with a specific oligo that will be sequenced along with the DNA after it’s broken down to be compatible with Illumina sequencers. The oligo tags then allow the analysis software to reconstruct accurate, long-range genomic information.

“There’s been this growing realization in the community and market that huge amounts of information are missing from our genome sequencing,” says 10X Genomics CEO and founder Serge Saxonov. “We solve that . . . by barcoding.”
The system costs $75,000 and is compatible with Illumina sequencers……..More

Source : 

http://www.the-scientist.com/articles.view/articleNo/44629/title/Top-10-Innovations-2015/

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Top 7 in Molecular Biology

1. A glowing gene tag
A new, genetically-encoded fluorescent protein created in the lab of Roger Tsien, who shared a Nobel Prize for developing green fluorescent protein (GFP), is poised to revolutionize electron microscopy. Engineered from an Arabidopsis protein, “miniSOG” (for mini Singlet Oxygen Generator) is less than half the size of GFP, binds to a suite of well-characterized proteins, and can faithfully tag a variety of mammalian cells as well as cell in intact rodents and nematodes.

X. Shu, et al., “A genetically encoded tag for correlated light and electron microscopy of intact cells, tissues, and organisms,” PLoS Biology, 9:e1001041, 2011. Free F1000 Evaluation

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Phylogenetic Tree

ArchaeThe formal evolutionary hierarchy of groups of organisms proceeds from the largest to the smallest groups: domain – kingdom – phylum – order – class – family – genus – species. Living organisms are grouped according to the type of cells they consist of, either prokaryotic cells or eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotes have a simple internal architecture without a nucleus. Eukaryotes have a distinct internal structure with a nucleus containing the genetic material. A third group of living organismswas recognized in the late 1960s, the Archaea (also called archaebacteria). They differ from ordinary bacteria by their plasma membrane (isoprene ether lipids rather than fatty acid ester lipids) and lifestyle. They are assigned to two classes, Crenarchaeota and Euryarcheota.

Source : Thieme Color Atlas of Genetic 3ed (2007)

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Cell

I. Introduction

Cell (biology), basic unit of life. Cells are the smallest structures capable of basic life processes, such as taking in nutrients, expelling waste, and reproducing. All living things are composed of cells. Some microscopic organisms, such as bacteria and protozoa, are unicellular, meaning they consist of a single cell. Plants, animals, and fungi are multicellular; that is, they are composed of a great many cells working in concert. But whether it makes up an entire bacterium or is just one of trillions in a human being, the cell is a marvel of design and efficiency. Cells carry out thousands of biochemical reactions each minute and reproduce new cells that perpetuate life.

Animal Cell

Animal Cell

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PCR

Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques

1. Introduction

Nucleic acid amplification techniques are based on 2 different approaches: 1.) amplification of a target nucleic acid sequence using, for example, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), ligase chain reaction (LCR), or isothermal ribonucleic acid (RNA) amplification, 2.) amplification of a hybridisation signal using, for example, for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the branched DNA (bDNA) method. In this case signal amplification is achieved without subjecting the nucleic acid to repetitive cycles of amplification. In this general chapter, the PCR method is described as the reference technique.  Alternative methods may be used, if they comply with the quality requirements  described below.

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Sel

Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa satuan unit terkecil dari kehidupan adalah Sel. Kata “sel” itu sendiri dikemukakan oleh Robert Hooke yang berarti “kotak-kotak kosong”, setelah ia mengamati sayatan gabus dengan mikroskop.

Selanjutnya disimpulkan bahwa sel terdiri dari kesatuan zat yang dinamakan Protoplasma. Istilah protoplasma pertama kali dipakai oleh Johannes Purkinje; menurut Johannes Purkinje protoplasma dibagi menjadi dua bagian yaitu Sitoplasma dan Nukleoplasma

Robert Brown mengemukakan bahwa Nukleus (inti sel) adalah bagian yang memegang peranan penting dalam sel,Rudolf Virchow mengemukakan sel itu berasal dari sel (Omnis Cellula E Cellula).

ANATOMI DAN FISIOLOGI SEL

Secara anatomis sel dibagi menjadi 3 bagian, yaitu:
1.
Selaput Plasma (Membran Plasma atau Plasmalemma).
2. Sitoplasma dan Organel Sel.
3. Inti Sel (Nukleus).

1. Selaput Plasma (Plasmalemma)

Yaitu selaput atau membran sel yang terletak paling luar yang tersusun dari senyawa kimia Lipoprotein (gabungan dari senyawa lemak atau Lipid dan senyawa Protein).

Lipoprotein ini tersusun atas 3 lapisan yang jika ditinjau dari luar ke dalam urutannya adalah:
Protein – Lipid – Protein Þ Trilaminer Layer

Lemak bersifat Hidrofebik (tidak larut dalam air) sedangkan protein bersifat Hidrofilik (larut dalam air); oleh karena itu selaput plasma bersifat Selektif Permeabel atau Semi Permeabel (teori dari Overton).

Selektif permeabel berarti hanya dapat memasukkan /di lewati molekul tertentu saja.

Fungsi dari selaput plasma ini adalah menyelenggarakan Transportasi zat dari sel yang satu ke sel yang lain.

Khusus pada sel tumbahan, selain mempunyai selaput plasma masih ada satu struktur lagi yang letaknya di luar selaput plasma yang disebut Dinding Sel (Cell Wall).

Dinding sel tersusun dari dua lapis senyawa Selulosa, di antara kedua lapisan selulosa tadi terdapat rongga yang dinamakan Lamel Tengah (Middle Lamel) yang dapat terisi oleh zat-zat penguat seperti Lignin, Chitine, Pektin, Suberine dan lain-lain.

Selain itu pada dinding sel tumbuhan kadang-kadang terdapat celah yang disebut Noktah. Pada Noktah/Pit sering terdapat penjuluran Sitoplasma ng disebut Plasmodesma yang fungsinya hampir sama dengan fungsi saraf pada hewan.

2. Sitoplasma dan Organel Sel
Bagian yang cair dalam sel dinamakan Sitoplasma khusus untuk cairan yang berada dalam inti sel dinamakan Nukleoplasma), sedang bagian yang padat dan memiliki fungsi tertentu digunakan Organel Sel.

Penyusun utama dari sitoplasma adalah air (90%), berfungsi sebagai pelarut zat-zat kimia serta sebagai media terjadinya reaksi kirnia sel.
Organel sel adalah benda-benda solid yang terdapat di dalam sitoplasma dan bersifat hidup(menjalankan fungsi-fungsi kehidupan).
Organel Sel tersebut antara lain :
a. Retikulum Endoplasma (RE.)
Yaitu struktur berbentuk benang-benang yang bermuara di inti sel.
Dikenal dua jenis RE yaitu :
• RE. Granuler (Rough E.R)
• RE. Agranuler (Smooth E.R)
Fungsi R.E. adalah : sebagai alat transportasi zat-zat di dalam sel itu sendiri. Struktur R.E. hanya dapat dilihat dengan mikroskop elektron.
b. Ribosom (Ergastoplasma)
Struktur ini berbentuk bulat terdiri dari dua partikel besar dan kecil, ada yang melekat sepanjang R.E. dan ada pula yang soliter.
Ribosom merupakan organel sel terkecil yang tersuspensi di dalam sel.
Fungsi dari ribosom adalah : tempat sintesis protein.
Struktur ini hanya dapat dilihat dengan mikroskop elektron.
c. Miitokondria (The Power House)
Struktur berbentuk seperti cerutu ini mempunyai dua lapis membran.
Lapisan dalamnya berlekuk-lekuk dan dinamakan Krista
Fungsi mitokondria adalah sebagai pusat respirasi seluler yang menghasilkan banyak ATP (energi) ; karena itu mitokondria diberi julukan “The Power House”.
d. Lisosom
Fungsi dari organel ini adalah sebagai penghasil dan penyimpan enzim pencernaan seluler. Salah satu enzi nnya itu bernama
Lisozym.
e. Badan Golgi (Apparatus Golgi = Diktiosom)
Organel ini dihubungkan dengan fungsi ekskresi sel, dan struktur ini dapat dilihat dengan menggunakan mikroskop cahaya biasa.
Organel ini banyak dijumpai pada organ tubuh yang melaksanakan fungsi ekskresi, misalnya ginjal.
J. Sentrosom (Sentriol)
Struktur berbentuk bintang yang berfungsi dalam pembelahan sel (Mitosis maupun Meiosis). Sentrosom bertindak sebagai benda kutub dalam mitosis dan meiosis.
Struktur ini hanya dapat dilihat dengan menggunakan mikroskop elektron. 

g. Plastida
Dapat dilihat dengan mikroskop cahaya biasa. Dikenal 3 jenis plastida yaitu :
1.
Lekoplas
(plastida berwarna putih berfungsi sebagai penyimpan makanan),
terdiri dari:
• Amiloplas (untak menyimpan amilum) dan,
• Elaioplas (Lipidoplas) (untukmenyimpan lemak/minyak).
Proteoplas (untuk menyimpan protein).

2. Kloroplas
yaitu plastida berwarna hijau. Plastida ini berfungsi menghasilkan
klorofil dan sebagai tempat berlangsungnya fotosintesis.
3.
Kromoplas
yaitu plastida yang mengandung pigmen, misalnya :
Karotin (kuning)
Fikodanin (biru)
Fikosantin (kuning)
Fikoeritrin (merah)

h. Vakuola (RonggaSel)
Beberapa ahli tidak memasukkan vakuola sebagai organel sel. Benda ini dapat dilihat dengan mikroskop cahaya biasa. Selaput pembatas antara vakuola dengan sitoplasma disebut Tonoplas
Vakuola berisi :
• garam-garam organik
• glikosida
• tanin (zat penyamak)
• minyak eteris (misalnya Jasmine pada melati, Roseine pada mawar
Zingiberine pada jahe)
• alkaloid (misalnya Kafein, Kinin, Nikotin, Likopersin dan lain-lain)
• enzim
• butir-butir pati
Pada boberapa spesies dikenal adanya vakuola kontraktil dan vaknola non kontraktil.

i. Mikrotubulus

Berbentuk benang silindris, kaku, berfungsi untuk mempertahankan bentuk sel dan sebagai “rangka sel”.
Contoh organel ini antara lain benang-benang gelembung pembelahan Selain itu mikrotubulus berguna dalam pembentakan Sentriol, Flagela dan Silia.

j. Mikrofilamen
Seperti Mikrotubulus, tetapi lebih lembut.
Terbentuk dari komponen utamanya yaitu protein aktin dan miosin (seperti pada otot). Mikrofilamen berperan alam pergerakan sel.
k. Peroksisom (Badan Mikro)
Ukurannya sama seperti Lisosom. Organel ini senantiasa berasosiasi dengan organel lain, dan banyak mengandung enzim oksidase dan katalase (banyak disimpan dalam sel-sel hati).

3. Inti Sel (Nukleus)
Inti sel terdiri dari bagian-bagian yaitu :
• Selapue Inti (Karioteka)
• Nukleoplasma (Kariolimfa)
• Kromatin / Kromosom
• Nukleolus(anak inti).
Berdasarkan ada tidaknya selaput inti kita mengenal 2 penggolongan sel yaitu :
Sel Prokariotik (sel yang tidak memiliki selaput inti), misalnya dijumpai
pada bakteri, ganggang biru.
Sel Eukariotik (sel yang memiliki selaput inti).Fungsi dari inti sel adalah : mengatur semua aktivitas (kegiatan) sel, karena di dalam inti sel terdapat kromosom yang berisi ADN yang mengatur sintesis protein.

Bagi yang malas membaca  “doble clik below”

kuliah-sel

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Genetic Engineering

I   INTRODUCTION

Genetic Engineering, alteration of an organism’s genetic, or hereditary, material to eliminate undesirable characteristics or to produce desirable new ones. Genetic engineering is used to increase plant and animal food production; to help dispose of industrial wastes; and to diagnose disease, improve medical treatment, and produce vaccines and other useful drugs. Included in genetic engineering techniques are the selective breeding of plants and animals, hybridization (reproduction between different strains or species), and recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

II   SELECTIVE BREEDING

The first-known genetic engineering technique, still used today, was the selective breeding of plants and animals, usually for increased food production. In selective breeding, only those plants or animals with desirable characteristics are chosen for further breeding. Corn has been selectively bred for increased kernel size and number and for nutritional content for about 7,000 years. More recently, selective breeding of wheat and rice to produce higher yields has helped supply the world’s ever-increasing need for food.

Cattle and pigs were first domesticated about 8,500 to 9,000 years ago and through selective breeding have become main sources of animal food for humans. Dogs and horses have been selectively bred for thousands of years for work and recreational purposes, resulting in more than 150 dog breeds and 100 horse breeds.

III   HYBRIDIZATION

Hybridization (crossbreeding) may involve combining different strains of a species (that is, members of the same species with different characteristics) or members of different species in an effort to combine the most desirable characteristics of both. For at least 3,000 years, female horses have been bred with male donkeys to produce mules, and male horses have been bred with female donkeys to produce hinnies, for use as work animals.

IV   RECOMBINANT DNA

In recent decades, genetic engineering has been revolutionized by a technique known as gene splicing, which scientists use to directly alter genetic material to form recombinant DNA. Genes consist of segments of the molecule DNA. In gene splicing, one or more genes of an organism are introduced to a second organism. If the second organism incorporates the new DNA into its own genetic material, recombined DNA results. Specific genes direct an organism’s characteristics through the formation of proteins such as enzymes and hormones. Proteins perform vital functions—for example, enzymes initiate many of the chemical reactions that take place within an organism, and hormones regulate various processes, such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction. The introduction of new genes into an organism essentially alters the characteristics of the organism by changing its protein makeup.

In gene splicing, DNA cannot be transferred directly from its original organism, known as the donor, to the recipient organism, known as the host. Instead, the donor DNA must be cut and pasted, or recombined, into a compatible fragment of DNA from a vector—an organism that can carry the donor DNA into the host. The host organism is often a rapidly multiplying microorganism such as a harmless bacterium, which serves as a factory where the recombined DNA can be duplicated in large quantities. The subsequently produced protein can then be removed from the host and used as a genetically engineered product in humans, other animals, plants, bacteria, or viruses. The donor DNA can be introduced directly into an organism by techniques such as injection through the cell walls of plants or into the fertilized egg of an animal. Plants and animals that develop from a cell into which new DNA has been introduced are called transgenic organisms.

Another technique that produces recombinant DNA is known as cloning. In one cloning method, scientists remove the DNA-containing nucleus from a female’s egg and replace it with a nucleus from an animal of a similar species. The scientists then place the egg in the uterus of a third animal, known as the surrogate mother. The result, first demonstrated by the birth of a cloned sheep named Dolly in 1996, is the birth of an animal that is nearly genetically identical to the animal from which the nucleus was obtained. Such an animal is genetically unrelated to the surrogate mother. Cloning is still in its infancy, but it may pave the way for improved farm animals and medical products.

A   Applications

The use of recombinant DNA has transformed a number of industries, including plant and animal food production, pollution control, and medicine.

A1   Food Production

Recombinant DNA is used to combat one of the greatest problems in plant food production: the destruction of crops by plant viruses or insect pests. For example, by transferring the protein-coat gene of the zucchini yellow mosaic virus to squash plants that had previously sustained great damage from the virus, scientists were able to create transgenic squash plants with immunity to this virus. Scientists also have developed transgenic potato and strawberry plants that are frost-resistant; potatoes, corn, tobacco, and cotton that resist attacks by certain insect pests; and soybeans, cotton, corn, and oilseed rape (the source of canola oil) that have increased resistance to certain weed-killing chemicals called herbicides. Recombinant DNA has also been used to improve crop yield. Scientists have transferred a gene that controls plant height, known as a dwarfing gene, from a wheat plant to other cereal plants, such as barley, rye, and oats. The transferred gene causes the new plant to produce more grain and a shorter stalk with fewer leaves. The shorter plant also resists damage from wind and rain better than taller varieties.

Scientists also apply gene-splicing techniques to animal food production. Scientists have transferred the growth hormone gene of rainbow trout directly into carp eggs. The resultant transgenic carp produce both carp and rainbow trout growth hormones and grow to be one-third larger than normal carp. Other fish that have been genetically engineered include salmon, which have been modified for faster growth, and trout, which have been altered so that they are more resistant to infection by a blood virus.

Recombinant DNA also has been used to clone large quantities of the gene responsible for the cattle growth hormone bovine somatotropin (BST) in the bacterium Escherichia coli. The hormone is then extracted from the bacterium, purified, and injected into dairy cows, increasing their milk production by 10 to 15 percent.

A2   Pollution Control

Genetically altered bacteria can be used to decompose many forms of garbage and to break down petroleum products. Recombinant DNA also can be used to monitor the breakdown of pollutants. For example, naphthalene, an environmental pollutant present in artificially manufactured soils, can be broken down by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. To monitor this process, scientists transferred a light-producing enzyme called luciferase, found in the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, to the Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterium. The genetically altered Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterium produces light in proportion to the amount of its activity in breaking down the naphthalene, thus providing a way to monitor the efficiency of the process (see Bioremediation).

A3   Medicine

In 1982 the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for the first time the medical use of a recombinant DNA protein, the hormone insulin, which had been cloned in large quantities by inserting the human insulin gene into the genetic makeup of Escherichia coli bacteria. Previously, this hormone, used by insulin-dependent people with diabetes mellitus, had been available only in limited quantities from hogs.

Since 1982 the FDA has approved other genetically engineered proteins for use in humans, including three cloned in hamster cell cultures: tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), an enzyme used to dissolve blood clots in people who have suffered heart attacks; erythropoetin, a hormone used to stimulate the production of red blood cells in people with severe anemia; and antihemophilic human factor VIII, used by people with hemophilia to prevent and control bleeding or to prepare them for surgery. Another important genetically engineered drug is interferon, a chemical that is produced by the body in tiny amounts. Engineered interferon is used to fight viral diseases and as an anticancer drug.

Scientists also have employed recombinant DNA to produce medically useful human proteins in animal milk. In this procedure, the human gene responsible for the desired protein is first linked to specific genes of the animal that are active only in its mammary (milk-producing) glands. The egg of the animal is then injected with the linked genes. The resulting transgenic animals will have these linked genes in every cell of their body but will produce the human protein only in their milk. The human protein is finally extracted from the animal’s milk for use as medicine. In this way, sheep’s milk is used to produce alpha-1-antitrypsin, an enzyme used in the treatment of emphysema; cow’s milk is used to produce lactoferrin, a protein that combats bacterial infections; and goat’s milk is used as yet another way to produce tPA, the blood-clot-dissolving enzyme also cloned in hamster cell cultures.

Recombinant DNA also is used in the production of vaccines against disease. A vaccine contains a portion of an infectious organism that does not cause severe disease but does cause the body’s immune system to form protective antibodies against the organism. When a person is vaccinated against a viral disease, the production of antibodies is actually a reaction to the surface proteins of the coat of the virus. With recombinant DNA technology, scientists have been able to transfer the genes for some viral-coat proteins to the cowpox virus, which was used against smallpox in the first efforts at vaccination in the late 18th century. Vaccination with genetically altered cowpox is now being used against hepatitis, influenza, and herpes simplex viruses. Genetically engineered cowpox is considered safer than using the disease-causing virus itself and is equally as effective.

In humans, recombinant DNA is the basis of gene therapy, in which genes within cells are removed, replaced, or altered to produce new proteins that change the function of the cells. The use of gene therapy has been approved in more than 400 clinical trials for diseases such as cystic fibrosis, emphysema, muscular dystrophy, adenosine deaminase deficiency, and some cancers. While gene therapy is a promising technique, many problems remain to be solved before gene therapy can reliably cure disease.

B   Patenting Genetically Engineered Products

It takes an average of seven to nine years and an investment of about $55 million to develop, test, and market a new genetically engineered product. Because of this great cost, companies have sought to patent the results of their discoveries. In 1980 the Patent and Trademark Office of the U.S. Department of Commerce issued its first patent on an organism that had been produced with recombinant DNA. The patent was for an oil-eating bacterium that could be used to clean up oil spills from ships and storage tanks. Since then, hundreds of patents have been granted for genetically altered bacteria, viruses, and plants. In 1988 the first patent was issued on a transgenic animal, a strain of laboratory mice whose cells were engineered to contain a cancer-predisposing gene. The mice are used to test low doses of suspected carcinogens, or cancer-causing substances, and to test the effectiveness of anticancer therapies.

C   Controversies

Public reaction to the use of recombinant DNA in genetic engineering has been mixed. The production of medicines through the use of genetically altered organisms has generally been welcomed. However, critics of recombinant DNA fear that the pathogenic, or disease-producing, organisms used in some recombinant DNA experiments might develop extremely infectious forms that could cause worldwide epidemics. In an effort to prevent such an occurrence, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States has established regulations restricting the types of recombinant DNA experiments that can be performed using such pathogens. In Canada, recombinant DNA products are regulated by various government departments, including Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Health Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, and Environment Canada.

Animal rights groups have argued that the production of transgenic animals is harmful to other animals. Genetically engineered fish raise problems if they interbreed with other fish that have not been genetically altered. Some experts fear that this process may change the characteristics of wild fish in unpredictable and possibly undesirable ways. A related concern is that engineered fish may compete with wild fish for food and replace wild fish in some areas.

The use of genetically engineered bovine somatotropin (BST) to increase the milk yield of dairy cows is particularly controversial. Some critics question the safety of BST for both the cows that are injected with it and the humans who drink the resulting milk. In the United States, a large percentage of dairy cows are treated with BST, but in Canada, BST cannot legally be sold. Scientists at Health Canada rejected the legalization of BST in 1999 based on evidence that BST causes health problems for cows. In particular, the Canadian scientists found that BST increases a cow’s likelihood of developing mastitis, or infection of the udder, and it also makes cows more susceptible to infertility and lameness. Nevertheless, the scientists consider the milk obtained from cows injected with BST to be safe for human consumption.

Transgenic plants also present controversial issues. Allergens can be transferred from one food crop to another through genetic engineering. In an attempt to increase the nutritional value of soybeans, a genetic engineering firm experimentally transferred into soybean plants a Brazil-nut gene that produces a nutritious protein. However, when a study found that the genetically engineered soybeans caused an allergic reaction in people sensitive to Brazil nuts, the project was canceled.

Environmentalists fear that the transgenic plants may interbreed with weeds, producing weeds with unwanted characteristics, such as resistance to herbicides. An example of such interbreeding has been demonstrated in experiments involving transgenic oilseed rape. Environmentalists also argue that, due to natural selection, insects quickly develop resistance to plants that have been engineered to incorporate biological pesticides.

Opponents of genetic engineering warn that the use of genetically modified food crops could result in unforeseen problems. They point to a 1999 study that found that genetically modified corn produced pollen that killed monarch butterfly caterpillars in the laboratory. Although the study results were preliminary, as a precaution the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established new regulations in January 2000 to reduce potential risks posed by the corn crop. Among the new rules, the EPA has asked farmers to plant unmodified corn crops around the edges of genetically engineered corn fields in order to create a buffer that may prevent toxic pollen from blowing into butterfly habitats.

Many European and developing nations have voiced concern about the health and environmental risks associated with imported genetically modified food crops from the United States and other countries. In early 2000, 130 nations devised the Protocol of Biosafety. Formally approved in June 2003, the treaty requires exporting nations to notify importers when products contain genetically modified organisms, including seeds, food crops, cattle, and fruit trees.

Some critics object to the patenting of genetically altered organisms because it makes the organisms the property of particular companies. For example, Costa Rica has enacted laws to prohibit the patenting of genes of native Costa Rican species by drug companies in other countries. To date, no laws are in place in the United States and Canada regulating the use of cloning technology, and some people fear the prospect of human cloning. If this technology remains unregulated, critics fear that it will provide the ability to create an “improved” human being with characteristics predetermined according to a scientist’s particular bias.

 

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